Note: You are viewing the development version of See how we work for more details.


A Type

This term is in the "new" area - implementation feedback and adoption from applications and websites can help improve our definitions.
A single episode of a podcast series.
PropertyExpected TypeDescription
Properties from Episode
actor Person An actor, e.g. in TV, radio, movie, video games etc., or in an event. Actors can be associated with individual items or with a series, episode, clip. Supersedes actors.
director Person A director of e.g. TV, radio, movie, video gaming etc. content, or of an event. Directors can be associated with individual items or with a series, episode, clip. Supersedes directors.
duration Duration The duration of the item (movie, audio recording, event, etc.) in ISO 8601 date format.
episodeNumber Integer  or
Position of the episode within an ordered group of episodes.
musicBy MusicGroup  or
The composer of the soundtrack.
partOfSeason CreativeWorkSeason The season to which this episode belongs.
partOfSeries CreativeWorkSeries The series to which this episode or season belongs. Supersedes partOfTVSeries.
productionCompany Organization The production company or studio responsible for the item, e.g. series, video game, episode etc.
trailer VideoObject The trailer of a movie or TV/radio series, season, episode, etc.
Properties from CreativeWork
about Thing The subject matter of the content.
Inverse property: subjectOf
abstract Text An abstract is a short description that summarizes a CreativeWork.
accessMode Text The human sensory perceptual system or cognitive faculty through which a person may process or perceive information. Values should be drawn from the approved vocabulary.
accessModeSufficient ItemList A list of single or combined accessModes that are sufficient to understand all the intellectual content of a resource. Values should be drawn from the approved vocabulary.
accessibilityAPI Text Indicates that the resource is compatible with the referenced accessibility API. Values should be drawn from the approved vocabulary.
accessibilityControl Text Identifies input methods that are sufficient to fully control the described resource. Values should be drawn from the approved vocabulary.
accessibilityFeature Text Content features of the resource, such as accessible media, alternatives and supported enhancements for accessibility. Values should be drawn from the approved vocabulary.
accessibilityHazard Text A characteristic of the described resource that is physiologically dangerous to some users. Related to WCAG 2.0 guideline 2.3. Values should be drawn from the approved vocabulary.
accessibilitySummary Text A human-readable summary of specific accessibility features or deficiencies, consistent with the other accessibility metadata but expressing subtleties such as "short descriptions are present but long descriptions will be needed for non-visual users" or "short descriptions are present and no long descriptions are needed".
accountablePerson Person Specifies the Person that is legally accountable for the CreativeWork.
acquireLicensePage CreativeWork  or
Indicates a page documenting how licenses can be purchased or otherwise acquired, for the current item.
aggregateRating AggregateRating The overall rating, based on a collection of reviews or ratings, of the item.
alternativeHeadline Text A secondary title of the CreativeWork.
archivedAt URL  or
Indicates a page or other link involved in archival of a CreativeWork. In the case of MediaReview, the items in a MediaReviewItem may often become inaccessible, but be archived by archival, journalistic, activist, or law enforcement organizations. In such cases, the referenced page may not directly publish the content.
assesses DefinedTerm  or
The item being described is intended to assess the competency or learning outcome defined by the referenced term.
associatedMedia MediaObject A media object that encodes this CreativeWork. This property is a synonym for encoding.
audience Audience An intended audience, i.e. a group for whom something was created. Supersedes serviceAudience.
audio AudioObject  or
Clip  or
An embedded audio object.
author Organization  or
The author of this content or rating. Please note that author is special in that HTML 5 provides a special mechanism for indicating authorship via the rel tag. That is equivalent to this and may be used interchangeably.
award Text An award won by or for this item. Supersedes awards.
character Person Fictional person connected with a creative work.
citation CreativeWork  or
A citation or reference to another creative work, such as another publication, web page, scholarly article, etc.
comment Comment Comments, typically from users.
commentCount Integer The number of comments this CreativeWork (e.g. Article, Question or Answer) has received. This is most applicable to works published in Web sites with commenting system; additional comments may exist elsewhere.
conditionsOfAccess Text Conditions that affect the availability of, or method(s) of access to, an item. Typically used for real world items such as an ArchiveComponent held by an ArchiveOrganization. This property is not suitable for use as a general Web access control mechanism. It is expressed only in natural language.

For example "Available by appointment from the Reading Room" or "Accessible only from logged-in accounts ".
contentLocation Place The location depicted or described in the content. For example, the location in a photograph or painting.
contentRating Rating  or
Official rating of a piece of content—for example, 'MPAA PG-13'.
contentReferenceTime DateTime The specific time described by a creative work, for works (e.g. articles, video objects etc.) that emphasise a particular moment within an Event.
contributor Organization  or
A secondary contributor to the CreativeWork or Event.
copyrightHolder Organization  or
The party holding the legal copyright to the CreativeWork.
copyrightNotice Text Text of a notice appropriate for describing the copyright aspects of this Creative Work, ideally indicating the owner of the copyright for the Work.
copyrightYear Number The year during which the claimed copyright for the CreativeWork was first asserted.
correction CorrectionComment  or
Text  or
Indicates a correction to a CreativeWork, either via a CorrectionComment, textually or in another document.
countryOfOrigin Country The country of origin of something, including products as well as creative works such as movie and TV content.

In the case of TV and movie, this would be the country of the principle offices of the production company or individual responsible for the movie. For other kinds of CreativeWork it is difficult to provide fully general guidance, and properties such as contentLocation and locationCreated may be more applicable.

In the case of products, the country of origin of the product. The exact interpretation of this may vary by context and product type, and cannot be fully enumerated here.
creativeWorkStatus DefinedTerm  or
The status of a creative work in terms of its stage in a lifecycle. Example terms include Incomplete, Draft, Published, Obsolete. Some organizations define a set of terms for the stages of their publication lifecycle.
creator Organization  or
The creator/author of this CreativeWork. This is the same as the Author property for CreativeWork.
creditText Text Text that can be used to credit person(s) and/or organization(s) associated with a published Creative Work.
dateCreated Date  or
The date on which the CreativeWork was created or the item was added to a DataFeed.
dateModified Date  or
The date on which the CreativeWork was most recently modified or when the item's entry was modified within a DataFeed.
datePublished Date  or
Date of first publication or broadcast. For example the date a CreativeWork was broadcast or a Certification was issued.
digitalSourceType IPTCDigitalSourceEnumeration Indicates an IPTCDigitalSourceEnumeration code indicating the nature of the digital source(s) for some CreativeWork.
discussionUrl URL A link to the page containing the comments of the CreativeWork.
editEIDR Text  or
An EIDR (Entertainment Identifier Registry) identifier representing a specific edit / edition for a work of film or television.

For example, the motion picture known as "Ghostbusters" whose titleEIDR is "10.5240/7EC7-228A-510A-053E-CBB8-J" has several edits, e.g. "10.5240/1F2A-E1C5-680A-14C6-E76B-I" and "10.5240/8A35-3BEE-6497-5D12-9E4F-3".

Since types like Movie and TVEpisode can be used for both works and their multiple expressions, it is possible to use titleEIDR alone (for a general description), or alongside editEIDR for a more edit-specific description.
editor Person Specifies the Person who edited the CreativeWork.
educationalAlignment AlignmentObject An alignment to an established educational framework.

This property should not be used where the nature of the alignment can be described using a simple property, for example to express that a resource teaches or assesses a competency.
educationalLevel DefinedTerm  or
Text  or
The level in terms of progression through an educational or training context. Examples of educational levels include 'beginner', 'intermediate' or 'advanced', and formal sets of level indicators.
educationalUse DefinedTerm  or
The purpose of a work in the context of education; for example, 'assignment', 'group work'.
encoding MediaObject A media object that encodes this CreativeWork. This property is a synonym for associatedMedia. Supersedes encodings.
Inverse property: encodesCreativeWork
encodingFormat Text  or
Media type typically expressed using a MIME format (see IANA site and MDN reference), e.g. application/zip for a SoftwareApplication binary, audio/mpeg for .mp3 etc.

In cases where a CreativeWork has several media type representations, encoding can be used to indicate each MediaObject alongside particular encodingFormat information.

Unregistered or niche encoding and file formats can be indicated instead via the most appropriate URL, e.g. defining Web page or a Wikipedia/Wikidata entry. Supersedes fileFormat.
exampleOfWork CreativeWork A creative work that this work is an example/instance/realization/derivation of.
Inverse property: workExample
expires Date  or
Date the content expires and is no longer useful or available. For example a VideoObject or NewsArticle whose availability or relevance is time-limited, a ClaimReview fact check whose publisher wants to indicate that it may no longer be relevant (or helpful to highlight) after some date, or a Certification the validity has expired.
funder Organization  or
A person or organization that supports (sponsors) something through some kind of financial contribution.
funding Grant A Grant that directly or indirectly provide funding or sponsorship for this item. See also ownershipFundingInfo.
Inverse property: fundedItem
genre Text  or
Genre of the creative work, broadcast channel or group.
hasPart CreativeWork Indicates an item or CreativeWork that is part of this item, or CreativeWork (in some sense).
Inverse property: isPartOf
headline Text Headline of the article.
inLanguage Language  or
The language of the content or performance or used in an action. Please use one of the language codes from the IETF BCP 47 standard. See also availableLanguage. Supersedes language.
interactionStatistic InteractionCounter The number of interactions for the CreativeWork using the WebSite or SoftwareApplication. The most specific child type of InteractionCounter should be used. Supersedes interactionCount.
interactivityType Text The predominant mode of learning supported by the learning resource. Acceptable values are 'active', 'expositive', or 'mixed'.
interpretedAsClaim Claim Used to indicate a specific claim contained, implied, translated or refined from the content of a MediaObject or other CreativeWork. The interpreting party can be indicated using claimInterpreter.
isAccessibleForFree Boolean A flag to signal that the item, event, or place is accessible for free. Supersedes free.
isBasedOn CreativeWork  or
Product  or
A resource from which this work is derived or from which it is a modification or adaptation. Supersedes isBasedOnUrl.
isFamilyFriendly Boolean Indicates whether this content is family friendly.
isPartOf CreativeWork  or
Indicates an item or CreativeWork that this item, or CreativeWork (in some sense), is part of.
Inverse property: hasPart
keywords DefinedTerm  or
Text  or
Keywords or tags used to describe some item. Multiple textual entries in a keywords list are typically delimited by commas, or by repeating the property.
learningResourceType DefinedTerm  or
The predominant type or kind characterizing the learning resource. For example, 'presentation', 'handout'.
license CreativeWork  or
A license document that applies to this content, typically indicated by URL.
locationCreated Place The location where the CreativeWork was created, which may not be the same as the location depicted in the CreativeWork.
mainEntity Thing Indicates the primary entity described in some page or other CreativeWork.
Inverse property: mainEntityOfPage
maintainer Organization  or
A maintainer of a Dataset, software package (SoftwareApplication), or other Project. A maintainer is a Person or Organization that manages contributions to, and/or publication of, some (typically complex) artifact. It is common for distributions of software and data to be based on "upstream" sources. When maintainer is applied to a specific version of something e.g. a particular version or packaging of a Dataset, it is always possible that the upstream source has a different maintainer. The isBasedOn property can be used to indicate such relationships between datasets to make the different maintenance roles clear. Similarly in the case of software, a package may have dedicated maintainers working on integration into software distributions such as Ubuntu, as well as upstream maintainers of the underlying work.
material Product  or
Text  or
A material that something is made from, e.g. leather, wool, cotton, paper.
materialExtent QuantitativeValue  or
The quantity of the materials being described or an expression of the physical space they occupy.
mentions Thing Indicates that the CreativeWork contains a reference to, but is not necessarily about a concept.
offers Demand  or
An offer to provide this item—for example, an offer to sell a product, rent the DVD of a movie, perform a service, or give away tickets to an event. Use businessFunction to indicate the kind of transaction offered, i.e. sell, lease, etc. This property can also be used to describe a Demand. While this property is listed as expected on a number of common types, it can be used in others. In that case, using a second type, such as Product or a subtype of Product, can clarify the nature of the offer.
Inverse property: itemOffered
pattern DefinedTerm  or
A pattern that something has, for example 'polka dot', 'striped', 'Canadian flag'. Values are typically expressed as text, although links to controlled value schemes are also supported.
position Integer  or
The position of an item in a series or sequence of items.
producer Organization  or
The person or organization who produced the work (e.g. music album, movie, TV/radio series etc.).
provider Organization  or
The service provider, service operator, or service performer; the goods producer. Another party (a seller) may offer those services or goods on behalf of the provider. A provider may also serve as the seller. Supersedes carrier.
publication PublicationEvent A publication event associated with the item.
publisher Organization  or
The publisher of the creative work.
publisherImprint Organization The publishing division which published the comic.
publishingPrinciples CreativeWork  or
The publishingPrinciples property indicates (typically via URL) a document describing the editorial principles of an Organization (or individual, e.g. a Person writing a blog) that relate to their activities as a publisher, e.g. ethics or diversity policies. When applied to a CreativeWork (e.g. NewsArticle) the principles are those of the party primarily responsible for the creation of the CreativeWork.

While such policies are most typically expressed in natural language, sometimes related information (e.g. indicating a funder) can be expressed using terminology.
recordedAt Event The Event where the CreativeWork was recorded. The CreativeWork may capture all or part of the event.
Inverse property: recordedIn
releasedEvent PublicationEvent The place and time the release was issued, expressed as a PublicationEvent.
review Review A review of the item. Supersedes reviews.
schemaVersion Text  or
Indicates (by URL or string) a particular version of a schema used in some CreativeWork. This property was created primarily to indicate the use of a specific release, e.g. 10.0 as a simple string, or more explicitly via URL, There may be situations in which other schemas might usefully be referenced this way, e.g. but this has not been carefully explored in the community.
sdDatePublished Date Indicates the date on which the current structured data was generated / published. Typically used alongside sdPublisher.
sdLicense CreativeWork  or
A license document that applies to this structured data, typically indicated by URL.
sdPublisher Organization  or
Indicates the party responsible for generating and publishing the current structured data markup, typically in cases where the structured data is derived automatically from existing published content but published on a different site. For example, student projects and open data initiatives often re-publish existing content with more explicitly structured metadata. The sdPublisher property helps make such practices more explicit.
size DefinedTerm  or
QuantitativeValue  or
SizeSpecification  or
A standardized size of a product or creative work, specified either through a simple textual string (for example 'XL', '32Wx34L'), a QuantitativeValue with a unitCode, or a comprehensive and structured SizeSpecification; in other cases, the width, height, depth and weight properties may be more applicable.
sourceOrganization Organization The Organization on whose behalf the creator was working.
spatial Place The "spatial" property can be used in cases when more specific properties (e.g. locationCreated, spatialCoverage, contentLocation) are not known to be appropriate.
spatialCoverage Place The spatialCoverage of a CreativeWork indicates the place(s) which are the focus of the content. It is a subproperty of contentLocation intended primarily for more technical and detailed materials. For example with a Dataset, it indicates areas that the dataset describes: a dataset of New York weather would have spatialCoverage which was the place: the state of New York.
sponsor Organization  or
A person or organization that supports a thing through a pledge, promise, or financial contribution. E.g. a sponsor of a Medical Study or a corporate sponsor of an event.
teaches DefinedTerm  or
The item being described is intended to help a person learn the competency or learning outcome defined by the referenced term.
temporal DateTime  or
The "temporal" property can be used in cases where more specific properties (e.g. temporalCoverage, dateCreated, dateModified, datePublished) are not known to be appropriate.
temporalCoverage DateTime  or
Text  or
The temporalCoverage of a CreativeWork indicates the period that the content applies to, i.e. that it describes, either as a DateTime or as a textual string indicating a time period in ISO 8601 time interval format. In the case of a Dataset it will typically indicate the relevant time period in a precise notation (e.g. for a 2011 census dataset, the year 2011 would be written "2011/2012"). Other forms of content, e.g. ScholarlyArticle, Book, TVSeries or TVEpisode, may indicate their temporalCoverage in broader terms - textually or via well-known URL. Written works such as books may sometimes have precise temporal coverage too, e.g. a work set in 1939 - 1945 can be indicated in ISO 8601 interval format format via "1939/1945".

Open-ended date ranges can be written with ".." in place of the end date. For example, "2015-11/.." indicates a range beginning in November 2015 and with no specified final date. This is tentative and might be updated in future when ISO 8601 is officially updated. Supersedes datasetTimeInterval.
text Text The textual content of this CreativeWork.
thumbnail ImageObject Thumbnail image for an image or video.
thumbnailUrl URL A thumbnail image relevant to the Thing.
timeRequired Duration Approximate or typical time it usually takes to work with or through the content of this work for the typical or target audience.
translationOfWork CreativeWork The work that this work has been translated from. E.g. 物种起源 is a translationOf “On the Origin of Species”.
Inverse property: workTranslation
translator Organization  or
Organization or person who adapts a creative work to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target market, or that translates during some event.
typicalAgeRange Text The typical expected age range, e.g. '7-9', '11-'.
usageInfo CreativeWork  or
The usageInfo property indicates further information about a CreativeWork. This property is applicable both to works that are freely available and to those that require payment or other transactions. It can reference additional information, e.g. community expectations on preferred linking and citation conventions, as well as purchasing details. For something that can be commercially licensed, usageInfo can provide detailed, resource-specific information about licensing options.

This property can be used alongside the license property which indicates license(s) applicable to some piece of content. The usageInfo property can provide information about other licensing options, e.g. acquiring commercial usage rights for an image that is also available under non-commercial creative commons licenses.
version Number  or
The version of the CreativeWork embodied by a specified resource.
video Clip  or
An embedded video object.
workExample CreativeWork Example/instance/realization/derivation of the concept of this creative work. E.g. the paperback edition, first edition, or e-book.
Inverse property: exampleOfWork
workTranslation CreativeWork A work that is a translation of the content of this work. E.g. 西遊記 has an English workTranslation “Journey to the West”, a German workTranslation “Monkeys Pilgerfahrt” and a Vietnamese translation Tây du ký bình khảo.
Inverse property: translationOfWork
Properties from Thing
additionalType Text  or
An additional type for the item, typically used for adding more specific types from external vocabularies in microdata syntax. This is a relationship between something and a class that the thing is in. Typically the value is a URI-identified RDF class, and in this case corresponds to the use of rdf:type in RDF. Text values can be used sparingly, for cases where useful information can be added without their being an appropriate schema to reference. In the case of text values, the class label should follow the style guide.
alternateName Text An alias for the item.
description Text  or
A description of the item.
disambiguatingDescription Text A sub property of description. A short description of the item used to disambiguate from other, similar items. Information from other properties (in particular, name) may be necessary for the description to be useful for disambiguation.
identifier PropertyValue  or
Text  or
The identifier property represents any kind of identifier for any kind of Thing, such as ISBNs, GTIN codes, UUIDs etc. provides dedicated properties for representing many of these, either as textual strings or as URL (URI) links. See background notes for more details.
image ImageObject  or
An image of the item. This can be a URL or a fully described ImageObject.
mainEntityOfPage CreativeWork  or
Indicates a page (or other CreativeWork) for which this thing is the main entity being described. See background notes for details.
Inverse property: mainEntity
name Text The name of the item.
potentialAction Action Indicates a potential Action, which describes an idealized action in which this thing would play an 'object' role.
sameAs URL URL of a reference Web page that unambiguously indicates the item's identity. E.g. the URL of the item's Wikipedia page, Wikidata entry, or official website.
subjectOf CreativeWork  or
A CreativeWork or Event about this Thing.
Inverse property: about
url URL URL of the item.



Example 1
Example notes or example HTML without markup.
<div class="episode__entry">
    <a href="">
      <span>#27: Behind the App #1: History</span>
  <small>February 18th, 2015</small>
  <small>37 minutes</small>
    In the first episode of “Behind the App”, a special series of
    Inquisitive, we take a look at the beginnings of iOS app development,
    by focusing on the introduction of the iPhone and the App Store.
    <a href="http://.../Inquisitive_027.mp3">MP3 (25.75 MB)</a>
Example encoded as Microdata embedded in HTML.
<div itemscope itemtype=""  class="episode__entry">
    <a itemprop="url" href="">
      <span itemprop="name">#27: Behind the App #1: History</span>
  <small><time itemprop="datePublished" datetime="2015-02-18">February 18th, 2015</time></small>
  <small><time itemprop="timeRequired" datetime="PT37M">37 minutes</time></small>
  <p itemprop="description">
    In the first episode of “Behind the App”, a special series of
    Inquisitive, we take a look at the beginnings of iOS app development,
    by focusing on the introduction of the iPhone and the App Store.
  <p itemprop="associatedMedia" itemscope itemtype="">
    <a itemprop="contentUrl" href="http://.../Inquisitive_027.mp3">
      MP3 (<span itemprop="contentSize">25.75 MB</span>)
Example encoded as JSON-LD in a HTML script tag.
<script type="application/ld+json">
   "@context": "",
   "@type": "PodcastEpisode",
   "url": "",
   "name": "#27: Behind the App #1: History",
   "datePublished": "2015-02-18",
   "timeRequired": "PT37M",
   "description": "In the first episode of “Behind the App”, a special series of Inquisitive, we take a look at the beginnings of iOS app development, by focusing on the introduction of the iPhone and the App Store.",
   "associatedMedia": {
     "@type": "MediaObject",
     "contentUrl": ""
   "partOfSeries": {
     "@type": "PodcastSeries",
     "name": "Inquisitive",
     "url": ""
Structured representation of the JSON-LD example.